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The Sentence - Introduction

The Sentence
Definition and Explanation
A sentence is the result of systematic arrangement of words. Words in a sentence are arranged in a manner that makes sense in speech and in writing.
The words thus arranged always appear in groups, as:
(1)   Humpty-Dumpty sat on a wall.
(2)   Little Jack Horner sat in a corner.
(3)   It snows on the mountains.
(4)   Shakespeare was a great dramatist.
(5)   We cannot pump the ocean dry.
For a group of words to be called sentence, it should satisfy two essential conditions: (a) it should be well-arranged; and (b) its meaning should be clear.

A sentence has the following components:
(1)   Words
(2)   Phrases
(3)   Clauses
(4)   Punctuations marks

A word is a preset arrangement of letters, which has some meaning.
Observe the following arrangements of letters.
(1)   bueaitiful
(2)   tyhone
(3)   world
(4)   discipline
(5)   the letterislyingonthetable
We noticed that there are, in all, five combinations of letters. However, all the five combinations shown above cannot be called words for the very obvious reason--- all of them are not meaningful. Combinations 3 and 4 are meaningful; whereas combinations 1, 2 and 5, are meaningless. If we arrange the letters of these combinations properly, they form beautiful, honesty and the letter is lying on the table. This re-arrangement of letters has made these combinations of letters fully meaningful. A combination of letters will be called a word if and only
If it is: (a) preset and (b) meaningful

Any combination of words, which form a part of some sentence, but does not express a complete sense like a sentence, is called a phrase.
Study the following sentences and focus on the italicized words:
(1)   Stars twinkle in the sky at night.
(2)   Razia was going to nearby market to purchase some food items.
(3)   The book was not of much use to me.
(4)   It is bad to laugh at others,
(5)   They could not complete their education due to poverty.
The italicized words- in the sky at night, to purchase, of much use, at others and due to poverty- are groups of words having some sense, but not complete meanings. Therefore, these groups of words are phrases forming parts of different sentences, but not having complete meanings.
A phrase can act as a noun, adjective, verb, adverb, Preposition or a conjunction.
A clause is a combination of words, which forms a part of a sentence and contains a subject and predicate.
Study the following sentences and observe the italicized parts in them.
(1)   Henry know that she sun is a giant star.
(2)   Salma was upset because she could not perform well in the final examination.
(3)   Do you know where the school is?
(4)   The gentleman standing on the pavement is Mr. Rathore, who is as teacher at secondary school.
(5)   Sundaram lost his temper and beat his neighbor.
The above sentences show that the italicized part in each of them does have some sense, and consists of its own Subject and predicate as well. Therefore, the parts of the sentences- that the Sun is a giant star; because she could not perform well in final examination; where the school is; who is a teacher at a Secondary School and beat his neighbor- convey some sense and consist of their Subject and predicate. Hence, they are clauses of the corresponding sentences.
(i)                 A sentence can have even more than two clauses.
(ii)               The basic difference between a phrase and Clause is that the phrase does not have a subject and a predicate like clause.
(iii)             Position of clause in the sentence can be exchanged with the other clause, which is not (generally possible in case of phrase.)

Punctuation Marks

Read the following sentences and focus on the highlighted symbols in them.

(1)   I prefer vegetables, curd and salad in the food.
(2)   You are not an obedient son of your parents.
(3)   Can anyone solve this difficult puzzle?
(4)   What a nice dress!
(5)   Usually, I keep quiet; mind my own business; and do not criticize anyone.
We observe that in the above sentences, the symbols, and; create pauses between the pronunciations of two or more words or clauses. Presence of absence of these symbols makes a striking difference while speaking the concerned sentences. The other symbols-  . ? ! (Full stop, question mark and exclamatory sign)- Not only mark the end of the sentences, but also indicate the kinds (moods) of the sentences
(i)                 A sentence is not a sentence if it is not bounded by . , ? or ! (Full stop, question mark or an exclamatory sign) on its right end.
(ii)               Full stop (.) indicates that the concerned sentence is an assertive/declarative/affirmative/informative/simple/negative sentence.
(iii)             Question mark (?) indicates that the concerned sentence is an interrogative sentence.
(iv)             Exclamatory mark (!) indicates that the concerned sentence is an exclamatory sentence.
(v)               Comma (,) controls the flow of pronunciation between two or more words or phrases. It indicates the smallest pause.
(vi)             Semi-colon (;) indicates a pause after close longer than that indicated by a comma.
The Sentence and its Ingredients
A sentence mainly consists of two components (pars), the subject and the Predicate.
The Himalayas stand to the north of India.
The Himalayas – Subject
Stand to the north of India – Predicate
The Subject
The Subject refers to that part of a sentence, which introduces the doer of the action mentioned in the other part of the sentence.
This doer can be a person, place or a thing, about whom the information is carried to the other part of the sentence. To be more precise, a person, place or a thing makes the subject of a sentence, as:
(1)   Amritsar is a holy place.
(2)   Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath.
(3)   This book contains the relevant material on this topic.
(4)   The Himalayas are full of medicinal herbs used in the treatment of diseases.
(5)   He shot an arrow into the air.
In the above sentences, Amritsar, Gautama Buddha, this book, the Himalayas and he are the subjects, about whom we are informed in the latter parts of the sentences, respectively.
The subject is always present in a sentence; either explicitly or implicitly.

(1)   Sita ate an apple.
Here, the subject is physically present (explicit) which is ‘Sita’
(2)   Come here!
Here, the subject is hidden; the subject is ‘you’
(You) come here!
The subject in a sentence changes with respect to whether the sentence is Active or Passive.
(1)   Mother kissed the baby. (Active)
(2)   The baby was kissed by the mother. (Passive)
In sentence (1), the form of the verb shows that the person denoted by the subject does something.
Mother (person denoted by the subject) does something.
In sentence (2), the form of the verb shows that something is done to the person denoted by the subject.
Something is done to the baby (person denoted by the subject). It should be noted the Object of the verb in the Passive sentence.
The Predicate
The Predicate refers to the remaining part of a sentence, which informs or tells us about the subject.
This part of a sentence may consist of verb (finite verb), object and other elements. In the above examples,
-          Ate an apple.
-          Come here!
-          Kissed the baby.
Form the predicates of these sentences.
Some more examples of the predicate have been italicized in the following sentences:
(1)   The mongoose killed a snake.
(2)   The coffee was hot and tasty.
(3)   Guru Dutt was the colossus of the Indian cine world.
(4)   Adolf Hitler gores down in history as a perpetrator of heinous crimes against humanity.
(5)   Prince Siddhartha renounced the world to become Gautama Buddha.
Something, the predicate is not completely expressed.
For example,
What a beautiful night! = What a beautiful night it is!

As we know, a sentence is a whole unit of speech, through which a speaker communicates his feelings to the listener. The communications is always tinged with the mood and behavior of the speaker. Consequently, the type and form of a sentence spoken is determined by the behavior of the speaker. This leads us to the classification of a sentence.
Sentences are generally classified into eight types and each type has its own purpose to serve. These types are as follows:
1.      Simple, 2. Compound, 3. Complex,
4. Negative, 5. Assertive/Declarative,
6. Interrogative, 7. Exclamatory, 8. Imperative
1. Simple sentence: A sentence, that has only one principal clause, is called a simple sentence. It has only one subject and a predicate.
(a)    She punished the boy for disobedience.
(b)   Meera ate an apple.
(c)    Radha for married to Manohar.
2. Compound Sentence: A sentence, that has two or more principle clauses, is called a Compound Sentence.

(a)    Ram ate a mango and Shyam ate an orange.
(b)   Seema’s son was disobedient and so she punished him.
(c)    Mohan did not study so he failed in the examination.
3. Complex Sentence: A sentence, that has one principle clause and one or more subordinate clause, is called a complex sentence.
(a)    As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said, they would not allow them to fight.
(b)   That you should say so, surprises me.
(c)    Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
4. Negative Sentence: A Sentence, that makes a sense of negation, is called a negative sentence.
(a)    The moon is not a planet.
(b)   I will not go to work today.
(c)    Sunaina lacks patience.

5. Assertive Sentence: Any Sentence making an assertion/statement is called an assertive sentence; assertion/statement can be either affirmative or negative.
(a)    Man is mortal.
(b)   Creation of the world is a wonderful act of God.
(c)    Antarctica is also called the White Continent.
Affirmative Staements:
(a)    Antarctic regions abound in creatures, like seals and penguins.
(b)   The Himalayas have the highest mountain ranges in the world.
(c)    Marathi is spoken in Maharashtra.
Negative Statements:
(a)    The sun does not rise in the west.
(b)   No work is small for a sincere worker.
(c)    Birds do not fly as fast as the acroplane.
6. Interrogative Sentence: A sentence, which asks a question, is an Interrogative sentence. It always ends with a question mark (?).
(a)    Did you have a long discussion on this topic?
(b)   Have you watched any film directed by Basu Chatterjee?
(c)    Where can we get Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales?
7. Exclamatory Sentence:  Exclamatory expressions conveying strong feelings, such as, surprise, anger, regret, joy, etc., are called Exclamatory Sentences.
(a)    What a piece of work is man!
... but a quintessence of dust!
(b)   You scoundrel!
(c)    Alas! The poor fellow lost his son!
Optative Sentences are a type of Exclamatory Sentences. They express a strong desire of wish.
(a)    O! For a glass of cold water!
(b)   O God! Would that I were a monarch!
Note: Expressions of this type generally figure in poetry.

8 Imperative Sentence: A sentence expressing request, command or suggestion is an imperative sentence. In this type, the subject is usually left out.
(a)    Go home immediately.
(b)   Lend me your cap, please.
(c)    Let us go for a walk.